Reap the Whirlwind

Reap the Whirlwind

© David Burton 2015

Reap the Whirlwind

     “For they have sown the wind, and they shall reap the whirlwind.” -- Hosea 8:7

     Our European friends are beginning to understand that this Biblical phrase has meaning. They are seeing the consequences of their growing anti-Semitism and their pandering to the growing Moslem and Arab 5th column in their midst.

     Today, Europe is reaping the whirlwind of its virulent anti-Semitism, anti-Zionism, and its failure to rein in the menace of Islamic jihad that has been imported from northern Africa and the Mideast and which has been festering there for the past several decades.

     As the year 2015 began, some of France's most heralded cartoonists, journalists and two police officers were among at least a dozen killed when terrorists stormed a satirical newspaper that had previously published cartoons mocking the Muslim Prophet Muhammad.

     The attack took place when three masked gunmen entered the Paris office of Charlie Hebdo and began firing with automatic weapons. It was reported “that that the gunmen shouted ‘Allahu Akbar’ while slaughtering Charlie Hebdo employees and then yelled ‘we have avenged the Prophet’ while fleeing the scene.” (Ref. 1)

Anti-Semitism is Alive and Well in Western Europe

     “In many European countries, including France and Germany, the number of anti-Semitic crimes committed {3/4 of the way through the year 2014} already exceeds the total for 2013. . . . Europe’s political climate is more hostile to Jews now than at any time since the second intifada.
     "Rising anti-Semitism among Europe’s Muslims is one reason for this change. . . . {where there have been} calls of ‘Jews to the gas!’ and prominently featured anti-Semitic imagery or slogans. {An} attack on a synagogue in Paris’ Marais district this past July, ended in outright violence.
     “But to claim that the rise of Muslim anti-Semitism is the main culprit for the changes . . . is to pin the blame on a small minority while overlooking that anti-Semitism has also grown among the majority. According to a recent Pew Research Center study conducted in Germany, although around 6 percent of the population is Muslim, 25 percent of people readily express unfavorable views of Jews; meanwhile, in Spain, where less than 3 percent of the population is Muslim, close to 50 percent of the population do the same. Although levels of anti-Semitism may be higher among Muslims than among Christians, a European anti-Semite remains far more likely to be Christian than Muslim.
     “Tensions between Muslims and Jews are a real problem, and one that has been swept under the carpet for too long; but an even greater problem is the tendency of wily politicians to play Jews and Muslims against each other for purposes of their own. The real question of Europe’s future is not whether Muslim immigrants will learn to tolerate Jews, but whether, in countries such as Sweden, Italy, and Poland, the majority can learn to think of Muslims and Jews as true members of the nation.
      - - -
     “In many European countries, Jews have long represented an irksome reminder of the blemishes on the nation’s moral standing. This is most obviously the case in Germany, where Jews are widely seen as flesh-and-blood embodiments of the darkest hour in the nation’s history -- a chapter that a younger generation of Germans, impatient with the ubiquitous memorials attesting to their nation’s past crimes, is determined to make a less prominent part of public life. But the same goes for countries that once saw their own history in unambiguously positive terms: whether in Poland, Sweden, or France, past treatment of Jews complicates long-standing narratives about heroism in World War II.
     “Given the strange role Jews have been assigned in Europe’s societal morality play, it gives nationalists special comfort to claim that Jews are ultimately no better than the fascists and collaborationists of the continent’s past. By showing that Jews are themselves capable of perpetrating violence, they hope to lighten their nations’ heavy historical burdens. When Israel began bombing Gaza this summer, European nationalists seized the opportunity to do just that.
     “As a result, the composition of the populists’ coalition has shifted once again. For much of the past decade, the dominant tendency was for such groups to seek an alliance with Jews. In recent months, by contrast, Jews have been kicked out and replaced with Muslims. Increasingly, both populists and Muslim immigrants blame -- and punish, sometimes violently -- European Jews for the actions of the Israeli government. This tendency has long been a feature of Europe’s left; witness the cinema in London that recently canceled a Jewish film festival to protest the bombings of the Gaza Strip. Over the last several months, it has also reared its ugly head among Europe’s right; a well-known columnist in the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, for example, wrote that events in Gaza explain why Europe’s Jews ‘have so often been expelled.’
     “But this constellation, too, is likely to remain short-lived. As the Gaza conflict fades from memory, talk of Europe’s Judeo-Christian roots is likely to make a comeback. Since it is so tempting to play Muslims and Jews off against each other, and the millions of Muslim immigrants pose a far more numerous threat to European identity than the continent’s remaining Jews, liberal Islamophobes will soon rediscover their insincere philo-Semitism." (Ref. 2)

     The Nazi racist ideology of the 1930s and 1940s represented the twentieth century manifestation of a strong current of anti-Semitism in European society going back hundreds, if not thousands, of years. Today, the far right in Europe manifests the long tradition of European intolerance and persecution of Jews. The defeat of Germany in World War II and the exposure of the Holocaust made overt racism unrespectable.

     Radical Islam is spreading across Europe among descendants of Muslim immigrants. Disenfranchised and disillusioned by the failure of integration, some European Muslims have taken up jihad against the West. They are dangerous and committed.

     “Jihadist networks span Europe from Poland to Portugal, thanks to the spread of radical Islam among the descendants of guest workers once recruited to shore up Europe's postwar economic miracle. In smoky coffeehouses in Rotterdam and Copenhagen, makeshift prayer halls in Hamburg and Brussels, Islamic bookstalls in Birmingham and ‘Londonistan,’ and the prisons of Madrid, Milan, and Marseilles, immigrants or their descendants are volunteering for jihad against the West. It was a Dutch Muslim of Moroccan descent, born and socialized in Europe, who murdered the filmmaker Theo van Gogh in Amsterdam last November. A Nixon Center study of 373 mujahideen in western Europe and North America between 1993 and 2004 found more than twice as many Frenchmen as Saudis and more Britons than Sudanese, Yemenites, Emiratis, Lebanese, or Libyans. Fully a quarter of the jihadists it listed were western European nationals [Emphasis mine] . . .
      - - -
     “Today, Muslims constitute the majority of immigrants in most western European countries, including Belgium, France, Germany, and the Netherlands, and the largest single component of the immigrant population in the United Kingdom. . . . Given continued immigration and high Muslim fertility rates, the National Intelligence Council projects that Europe's Muslim population will double by 2025.
     “. . . North African immigrants retained powerful attachments to their native cultures. . . , Europe's Muslims gather in bleak enclaves with their compatriots: Algerians in France, Moroccans in Spain, Turks in Germany, and Pakistanis in the United Kingdom.
     “. . . Muslims of western Europe are likely to be distinct, cohesive, and bitter. In Europe, host countries that never learned to integrate newcomers collide with immigrants exceptionally retentive of their ways, producing a variant of . . . 'globalized Islam': militant Islamic resentment at Western dominance, anti-imperialism exalted by revivalism.
      - - -
     “Broadly speaking, there are two types of jihadists in western Europe: call them 'outsiders' and 'insiders.' The outsiders are aliens, typically asylum seekers or students, who gained refuge in liberal Europe from crackdowns against Islamists in the Middle East. Among them are radical imams, often on stipends from Saudi Arabia, who open their mosques to terrorist recruiters and serve as messengers for or spiritual fathers to jihadist networks. Once these aliens secure entry into one EU country, they have the run of them all. They may be assisted by legal or illegal residents, such as the storekeepers, merchants, and petty criminals who carried out the Madrid bombings.
     “Many of these first-generation outsiders have migrated to Europe expressly to carry out jihad. In Islamist mythology, migration is archetypically linked to conquest. Facing persecution in idolatrous Mecca, in AD 622 the Prophet Muhammad pronounced an anathema on the city's leaders and took his followers to Medina. From there, he built an army that conquered Mecca in AD 630, establishing Muslim rule. Today, in the minds of mujahideen in Europe, it is the Middle East at large that figures as an idolatrous Mecca because several governments in the region suppressed Islamist takeovers in the 1990s. Europe could even be viewed as a kind of Medina, where troops are recruited for the reconquest of the holy land, starting with Iraq.
     “The insiders, on the other hand, are a group of alienated citizens, second- or third-generation children of immigrants, . . . who were born and bred under European liberalism. Some are unemployed youth from hardscrabble suburbs of Marseilles, Lyon, and Paris or former mill towns such as Bradford and Leicester. They are the latest, most dangerous incarnation of that staple of immigration literature, the revolt of the second generation. They are also dramatic instances of what could be called adversarial assimilation -- integration into the host country's adversarial culture. But this sort of anti-West westernization is illustrated more typically by another paradigmatic second-generation recruit: the upwardly mobile young adult, . . .
     “. . . As in the September 11 attacks, the educated tend to form the leadership cadre, with the plebeians providing the muscle. . . .
     “. . . jihadists extended their European operations after the roundups that followed September 11 and then again, with fresh energy, after the invasion of Iraq. . . .
     “Typically these groups target European countries allied with the United States in Iraq, as was proved by the Madrid bombings, the November 2003 attacks on British targets in Istanbul, as well as the lion's share of some 30 spectacular terrorist plots that have failed since September 11. In March 2004, within days of the London police chief's pronouncement that a local terrorist attack was 'inevitable,' his officers uncovered a plot involving nine British nationals of Pakistani origin and seized the largest cache of potential bomb-making material since the heyday of the Irish Republican Army. A few months later, Scotland Yard charged eight second-generation South Asian immigrants, reportedly trained in al Qaeda camps, with assembling a dirty bomb. . . .
      - - -
     “. . . for some Europeans the Madrid bombings were a watershed event comparable to the September 11 attacks in the United States, . . . The September 11 attacks did not happen in Europe, and for a long time the continent's experience with terrorism mainly took the form of car bombs and booby-trapped trash cans. Terrorism is still seen as a crime problem, not an occasion for war. Moreover, some European officials believe that acquiescent policies toward the Middle East can offer protection. . . .
     “With a few exceptions, European authorities shrink from the relatively stout legislative and security measures adopted in the United States. They prefer criminal surveillance and traditional prosecutions to launching a U.S.-style 'war on terrorism' . . . Germany's failure to convict conspirators in the September 11 attacks suggests that the European public, outside of France and now perhaps the Netherlands, is not ready for a war on terrorism.
       - - -
     “Europe's emerging mujahideen endanger the entire Western world.“ (Ref. 3)

     In eastern Paris on the evening of July 13th, 2014, a mob gathered outside a synagogue ,howling for 'vengeance' and hurling stones and other debris at the structure and at the Jewish worshippers gathered inside – another manifestation of the growing anti-Semitism that had become rampant in western Europe.

     “Two weeks later, 400 protesters attacked a synagogue and Jewish-owned businesses in Sarcelles, in the north of Paris, shouting ‘Death to the Jews’. Posters had even advertised the raid in advance, like the pogroms of Tsarist Russia.
     “In Britain, . . . there were around 100 anti-Semitic incidents in July, double the usual number. . . . In Berlin a crowd of anti-Israel protesters had to be prevented from attacking a synagogue. In Liege, Belgium, a café owner put up a sign saying dogs were welcome, but Jews were not allowed.
     “for many French and European Jews, the violence comes as no surprise. Seventy years after the Holocaust, from Amiens to Athens, the world’s oldest hatred flourishes anew. For some, opposition to Israeli policies is now a justification for open hatred of Jews . . .
     “. . .These people were . . . attacked because they were Jews, going about their daily business.
     “. . . On May 24th {2014} a gunman pulled out a Kalashnikov assault rifle at the Jewish Museum in Brussels and opened fire, killing four people. The next day the results of the elections to the European parliament showed a surge in support for extreme-right ­parties in France, Greece, Hungary and Germany. . . .
     “Perhaps the most shocking result was the surge in support for Golden Dawn in Greece. The party, which has been described as openly neo-Nazi, won almost 10% of the vote, bringing it three members of the European parliament.
      - - -
     “A survey published in November 2013 . . . found that 29% {of European Jews} had considered emigrating as they did not feel safe. Jews across Europe, the survey noted, ‘face insults, discrimination and physical violence, which despite concerted efforts by both the EU and its member states, shows no signs of fading into the past’.
      - - -
     “. . . Malmo, Sweden’s third-largest city, is one of the most unsettling places in Europe for Jews. Anti-Semitic attacks tripled between 2010 and 2012, when the community, around 700-strong, recorded 60 incidents. In October 2012 a bomb exploded at the Jewish community centre.
     “. . . the former US Special Envoy for combating anti-Semitism, said Malmo was a prime example of the ‘new anti-Semitism’ where hatred of Israel is used to disguise hatred of Jews.
      - - -
     “. . . Saying that Jews are the only nation who don’t have the right to self-determination, smearing Israel as a modern incarnation of Nazi Germany or apartheid South Africa, asserting that the ‘Israel Lobby’ manipulates American foreign policy from the shadows is unmistakably anti-Semitism.
      - - -
     “In May 2012 in Toulouse a gunman killed seven people, including a teacher and three children, at a Jewish school. ‘Jews in France or Belgium are being killed because they are Jews,’ . . . ‘Jihadism has become the new Nazism. This makes people consider leaving France.’
     “The murders have not dampened anti-Jewish hatred. On the contrary, they seem to have inflamed it. . . .
      - - -
     “So far, British Jews have not suffered a terrorist attack like Toulouse or Brussels, but not for want of jihadis trying. In 2011 Somali troops shot dead an al-Qaida leader in Africa when he tried to ram his car through a checkpoint. Documents found inside his car included detailed plans for attacks on Eton College, the Ritz and Dorchester hotels, and the Golders Green and Stamford Hill neighbourhoods of London, which have large Jewish populations.
     “The following year nine British jihadis were convicted of plotting terrorist acts including the potential targeting of two rabbis, and a husband-and-wife team from Oldham, north England, were convicted of plotting terrorist attacks on Manchester’s Jewish community.
     “Muslims are over-represented among the perpetrators of anti-Semitic incidents . . .” (Ref. 4)

     While many of the anti-Semitic incidents in western Europe are being perpetrated by Arab and Moslem jihadists and extremists, the fact remains that much anti-Semitism in western Europe is tolerated, fostered, encouraged and even perpetrated by native western Europeans, for whatever their reasons.

Islamic Terror Attacks in Western Europe

     In September of 1972, eleven Israeli athletes were murdered in Munich, Germany.

     In Antwerp, Belgium on 27 June 1980, a. Syrian Palestinian threw 2 hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus, killing 1 and injuring 20.[5]

     On 2 November2004, the Dutch filmmaker, Theo Van Gogh, was murdered in Amsterdam by an al Qaeda-inspired terrorist network. [6]

     On 11 March 2004, Islamic militants detonated a series of explosives on 4 commuter trains in Madrid, Spain, killing 191 and injuring an additional 1,800. It was the worst terrorist attack in modern European history.[7]

     On 7 July 2005, four bomb attacks in London claimed the lives of over 50 people and injured 700 more. Two weeks later, more attempted attacks followed, which fortunately failed to cause any further loss of life.[8]

     On 11 December 2010 in Stockholm, Sweden, two bombs exploded in central Stockholm, killing the bomber and injuring two others. An Iraqi-born radicalized Islamist Swedish citizen is believed to have carried out the bombing.[9]

     The offices of the French publication Charlie Hebdo were repeatedly threatened for publishing caricatures of the Prophet Muhammad, and its offices were firebombed in 2011.[1]

     On 2 March 2011 at Frankfurt Airport in Germany. A Moslem Arab shot and killed two United States Airmen and seriously wounding two others.[10]

     On 22 May 2013, a British Army soldier was attacked and killed near the Royal Artillery Barracks in Woolwich, southeast London. Two British men of Nigerian descent, raised as Christians and who converted to Islam, ran him down with a car, then used knives and a cleaver to stab and hack him to death. The men told passers-by that they had killed a soldier to avenge the killing of Muslims by the British armed forces.[11]

     On 7 January 2015, some of France's most heralded cartoonists, journalists and two police officers were among at least a dozen killed when terrorists stormed the offices of Charlie Hebdo which had previously published cartoons mocking the Muslim Prophet Muhammad.

The New Anti-Semitism in Western Europe

     The “New anti-Semitism” in western Europe is supposedly a new form of anti-Semitism that developed in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, emanating simultaneously from the far-left, radical Islam, and the far-right, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. In reality, it is the same-old, same-old, dating back to Pharaoh in Egypt, Haman in Persia, the Greeks and Romans some 2- to 3-thousand years ago, the inquisitions some 600 to 700 years ago and the all-too-recent Holocaust instituted by the Nazis, less than a century ago. Much of the current wave of anti-Semitism purports to be merely a criticism of Israel but is, in fact, just more of the old jealousy-spawned hatred of Jews.

     “Antisemitism has increased significantly in Europe since 2000, with significant increases in verbal attacks against Jews and vandalism such as graffiti, fire bombings of Jewish schools, desecration of synagogues and cemeteries. Those incidents took place not only in France and Germany, where antisemitic incidents are the highest in Europe but also in countries like Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom. In those countries, physical assaults against Jews including beatings, stabbings and other violence, increased markedly, in a number of cases resulting in serious injury and even death. Moreover, the Netherlands and Sweden have also had consistently high rates of antisemitic attacks since 2000. [Emphasis mine]
     “This rise in antisemitic attacks is associated on the one hand with the Muslim anti-Semitism and on the other hand with the rise of far right parties as a result of the economic crisis of 2008. The failure of assimilation of Muslim immigrant communities in Europe together with economic and social problems and the spread of fundamentalist ideas among the Muslim youth in Europe has led to radicalization inside the Muslim communities and especially among the youth. . . . A number of studies conducted among the Muslim youth in various western European countries have showed that Muslim children have far more anti-Semitic ideas than Christian children . . .
     “A large number of violent antisemitic attacks in Europe were done by Muslims - the murder of 4 Jews in Toulouse in 2012 by Mohammed Merah, the 1982 attack on the Jewish Goldenberg restaurant in Paris that was carried out by Arab terrorists, the kidnapping and murder of the French citizen Ilan Halimi in 2006 by a Muslim gang and the antisemitic riots in Norway in 2009 are a few examples to this phenomenon.
     “The second cause of the rise in the scope of antisemitism in Europe is the economic crisis that started in 2008 and resulted in the rise of far right parties, anti-immigration and antisemitic ideas. The number of anti-Semitic political parties in European parliaments rose from 1 to 3 during 2012 and a survey in 10 European countries revealed high levels of anti-Semitic attitudes. In June, Greece's neo-Nazi party, Golden Dawn, won 21 seats in parliament. In November, the radical Svoboda (Freedom) party of Ukraine captured more than 10% of the popular vote, giving electoral support to a party well known for its anti-Semitic rhetoric. They joined the ranks of Jobbik, an openly anti-Semitic party, in the Hungarian parliament. This rise in the support for far right ideas in western and eastern Europe has resulted in the increase of antisemitic acts, mostly attacks on Jewish memorials, synagogues and cemeteries but also a number of physical attacks against Jews.
     “According to a poll conducted . . . in 2012, anti-Semitic attitudes in ten European countries remain at ‘disturbingly high levels’, peaking in Eastern Europe and Spain, with large swaths of the population subscribing to classical anti-Semitic notions such as Jews having too much power in business, being more loyal to Israel than their own country, or ‘talking too much’ about what happened during the Holocaust. . . . “ (Ref. 12)

     “Some of what we are seeing in Europe is the old anti-Semitism of the far right and the radical left, which never went away and merely lay dormant during the years when attacks on Jews were considered unacceptable in polite society. That taboo is now well and truly broken.
     “But the driving thrust of the assault on Jews is new. Today’s anti-Semitism differs from the old in three ways. First, its pretext. In the Middle Ages, Jews were hated for their religion. In the 19th and 20th centuries, they were hated for their race. Today, they are hated for their nation state. Israel, now 66 years old, still finds itself the only country among the 193 in the United Nations whose right to exist is routinely challenged and in many quarters denied. [Emphasis mine]
      - - -
     “There are 102 nations in the world where Christians predominate, and there are 56 Islamic states. But a single Jewish state is deemed one too many. [Emphasis mine] And the targets of terror in Europe are all too often not Israeli government offices but synagogues, Jewish schools and museums—places not of Israeli policy-making but of ordinary Jewish life.
     “. . . the blood libel—the slander that Jews use the blood of gentiles in religious rituals {was introduced} into Egypt and Syria in the 19th century. Nazi Germany, via its ally, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, added to this mix the notorious conspiracy tract ‘The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.’
     “These two myths entered Islam from the outside. Now Islamist radicals have brought them back to Europe. Whenever you hear that ‘Jews control the media’” or ‘Israel targets Palestinian children,’ you are hearing ‘The Protocols’ and the blood libel yet again. (Ref. 13)

Reaping the Whirlwind

     “Modern anti-Semitism should be considered as a true threat to Europe’s stability as it undermines the basic tenets of a functioning democracy: individual critical thinking and a social thrive for tolerance. They no longer wear brown shirts or build ghettos and, just for that reason, modern anti-Semites are even more dangerous. Behind the mask of cultural relativism, behind the support of the Palestinians and their anti-Zionism, a movement is arising which aims at the same time at destroying the European social fabric, marginalizing the Jewish communities and delegitimizing the State of Israel.
      - - -
     "Modern anti-Semites understand that their supposed human right-inspired opposition to the State of Israel can be used as a Trojan Horse to condition the European mind into a modern kind of hate toward the Jewish people. They may no longer impose yellow stars and talk about racial purity but the modern anti-Semites pose a real problem to the future of Europe as well as to its relations with Israel. By distorting the truth, controlling crowds and crafting a well-structured fundamentalist propaganda, these groups come in the perfect line of the religious extremism that blocked Europe in the Middle Ages and the nationalistic rage that burnt the continent in the 1930s and 1940s. Hitler wasn’t a particularly bright individual; he just came at the perfect moment, when the crowds were implicitly begging for a figure like his. The modern anti-Semites in the comfort of their university halls, their street protests and their mosques are preparing a devastating groundwork which could potentially result in millions of people to be accepting a new form of destructive mentality.” (Ref. 14)

     “Anti-Semitism was always only obliquely about Jews. They were its victims but not its cause. The politics of hate that begins with Jews never ends with Jews. It wasn’t Jews alone who suffered under Hitler and Stalin. It is hardly Jews alone who are suffering today under their successors, the radical Islamists of Hamas, Hezbollah, al Qaeda, Boko Haram, Islamic State and their fellow travelers in a seemingly endless list of new mutations.
    ”The assault on Israel and Jews world-wide is part of a larger pattern that includes attacks on Christians and other minority faiths in the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia—a religious equivalent of ethnic cleansing. Ultimately, this campaign amounts to an attack on Western democratic freedoms as a whole. If not halted now, it will be Europe itself that will be pushed back toward the Dark Ages.” (Ref. 13)

     Woe to those who practice anti-Semitism – whether covertly or overtly; woe to those who tolerate anti-Semitism in their midst; woe to those who turn a blind eye to a festering evil in their midst; woe to those who feed the tiger in the futile hope that they will not eventually be devoured by the tiger. Those who do any of these shall reap the whirlwind.

     Less than a century ago, Europe and others stood by while Hitler and his Nazi henchmen brought about misery and destruction to nearly all of Europe. Europe is doing the same today and, as is becoming increasingly apparent, the same results are happening. Yesterday, it was Hitler and his armies of brown shirts – today, it is radical Islam and its armies of jihadists. Will they never learn? You cannot tolerate evil! You cannot appease evil! You must destroy evil!


  1. Terrorists gun down 12 at French newspaper that ran cartoons of Prophet Muhammad, Ryan Gorman, AOL,
    7 January 2015.
  2. Europe's Jewish Problem, Yascha Mounk, Foreign Affairs, 17 September 2014.
  3. Europe's Angry Muslims, Robert S. Leiken, Council on Foreign Relations, July/August 2005.
  4. Exodus: Why Europe's Jews Are Fleeing Once Again, Adam Lebor, Newsweek, 29 July 2014.
  5. ISLAMIST TERRORISM IN EUROPE : THE CASE OF BELGIUM, Prof. Dr. Herman Matthijs & Farhan Zahid, Centre Francais de Recherge sur le Renseignement, Accessed 7 January 2015.
    National Criminal Justice Reference Service, June 2006.
  7. The Madrid 3/11 Bombings, Jihadist Networks in Spain, and the Evolution of Terrorism in Western Europe, Brookings, Accessed 7 January 2015.
  8. THE IMPACT OF 7 JULY 2005 LONDON BOMB ATTACKS ON MUSLIM COMMUNITIES IN THE EU, European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, November 2005.
  9. 2010 Stockholm Bombings, Wikipedia, Accessed 7 January 2015.
  10. 2011 Frankfurt Airport shooting, Wikipedia, Accessed 7 January 2015.
  11. Murder of Lee Rigby, Wikipedia, Accessed 7 January 2015.
  12. Antisemitism in Europe, Wikipedia, Accessed 7 January 2015.
  13. Europe’s Alarming New Anti-Semitism, Jonathan Sacks, The Wall Street Journal, 2 October 2014.
  14. The modern European anti-Semitism, Riccardo Dugulin,, 19 August 2013.


  9 January 2015 {Article 210; Undecided_38}    
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