Who is Getting Rich from the Offices of President and Vice President?

Who is Getting Rich from the Offices of President and Vice President?

© David Burton 2020

Trumps Getting Rich

     So Hunter Biden got a well-paying job with a company in a foreign nation. Was this wrong, illegal or unethical? Maybe, maybe not. Did then Vice-President Joseph Biden do anything wrong to help his son? There has been absolutely no proof that he did so. Did Joe Biden illegally or improperly profit from being vice president? Again, there has been no shred of evidence that he did so. So, what about the current President and his family? Have Donald Trump and/or members of his family illegally or improperly benefited financially from his being president? Here, at best, the facts are subject to interpretation and are certainly in question.

     “The emoluments clause, also called the foreign emoluments clause, is a provision of the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section 9, Paragraph 8) that generally prohibits federal officeholders from receiving any gift, payment, or other thing of value from a foreign state or its rulers, officers, or representatives. The clause provides that: No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.
      - - -
     “The foreign emoluments clause also broadly encompasses any kind of profit, benefit, advantage, or service, not merely gifts of money or valuable objects. Thus, it would prohibit a federal officeholder from receiving special consideration in business transactions with a foreign state (or with a corporation owned or managed by a foreign state) that gave the officeholder a competitive advantage over other businesses. Arguably, . . . the clause would forbid even competitively fair transactions with foreign states, because the profit accruing to the officeholder would fall within the ordinary meaning of ‘emolument,’ and because such arrangements would threaten exactly the kind of improper influence that the clause was intended to prevent.” (Ref. 1)

     There are numerous ways for government office holders and their family members to line their own pockets. Let’s look back at Donald Trump’s first year in office and let’s see how he and his family profited in that short span of time.

     In “any White House, and especially in one where the president has built a career on branding and making himself the product, culture flows from the top. In this case {it was} rather like a volcano.
     “And when it comes to wringing bucks out of this administration, no one can match President Donald Trump himself for the sheer depth and breadth of his national grift. Hell, the way he's set things up it's virtually impossible to even capture its scope. Thanks to presidential ethics laws that never contemplated a businessman president who would not follow the political norms of divesting himself of his businesses, disclosing his taxes and generally trying to avoid conflicts of interest, much and possibly all of this is legal if unseemly. ‘The president can't have a conflict of interest,’ Trump noted even before he took office, perhaps confusing a technical matter of law for a broader matter of ethics.
     “We can start with the truly big money. {At the start of 2018, Forbes magazine reported} that Trump rakes in at least $175 million annually from commercial tenants like the state-owned Industrial & Commercial Bank of China. Which companies specifically and how much money exactly? It's impossible to say because federal disclosure laws don't require an accounting of where his businesses get their money. This was not a problem with previous presidents, who divested themselves and disclosed. Trump on the other hand does nothing more than the minimum legally required. Not knowing who's paying the president how much money? That seems like it might be a problem. ‘Take any hot-button issue of the past year, and there's a good chance Trump's tenants lobbied the federal government on it, either in support of or in opposition to the administration's position,’ Forbes noted, adding that at least three dozen known Trump tenants have ‘meaningful relationships with the federal government, from contractors to lobbying firms to regulatory targets.’ In one case, even the federal government is paying rent to the president. [Emphasis mine]
     “And that's just one avenue for filling the Trump-branded, solid gold trough. Foreign governments have been quick to figure out how to stay on the president's good side. They've ‘donated public land, approved permits and eased environmental regulations for Trump-branded developments, creating a slew of potential conflicts as foreign leaders make investments that can be seen as gifts or attempts to gain access to the American president through his sprawling business empire,’ {the McClatchyDC news agency} reported in January. The Chinese government has granted Trump at least 39 trademarks, some of which had been previously rejected, since he took office; Ivanka Trump, the president's daughter and senior adviser, has also gotten at least seven since she joined the administration. [Emphasis mine] It's good to be the king or in the royal family.
     “But wait, there are still more ways to enrich the most powerful man in the world. His company still sells real estate, after all. An investigation by USA Today last summer found that in the 12 months after he clinched the GOP presidential nomination in 2016, ‘70% of buyers of Trump properties were limited liability companies – corporate entities that allow people to purchase property without revealing all of the owners' names. That compares with about 4% of buyers in the two years before.’ Overall in 2017, the paper reported, Trump's companies ‘sold more than $35 million in real estate ... mostly to secretive shell companies that obscure buyers' identities.’ Mysterious investors suddenly pouring tens of millions of dollars into Trump coffers once he became the Republican nominee and then the president? Nothing suspicious here: Please move along.
     "And then of course there are the day-to-day ways Trump rakes in the dough by mixing and matching his presidential activities with his own properties.  . . . he spent one third of his first year in office visiting his own commercial properties. And he wasn't alone: According to a January report by Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington, or CREW, more than 100 executive branch officials and members of Congress also visited Trump properties during his first year in office; at least 40 special interest groups held events at Trump properties; and at least 11 foreign government's paid Trump businesses. The Kuwaiti Embassy, for example, held a National Day celebration at Trump's Washington, D.C. hotel last year and then again last month. As one Asian diplomat told The Washington Post way back in the early days after the 2016 election, going to Trump's hotel only makes good sense: ‘Why wouldn't I stay at his hotel blocks from the White House, so I can tell the new president, 'I love your new hotel!' Isn't it rude to come to his city and say, 'I am staying at your competitor?' [Emphasis mine]
      - - -
     “And neither Trump nor his team have been shy about promoting the brand, mentioning his private businesses at least 35 times during his first year in office, according to CREW, giving new meaning to the concept of earned media. Overall, the report found, political groups spent more than $1.2 million at Trump properties during his first year in office, after never having spent more than $100,000 ‘in any given year going back to at least 2002.’ . . .
     None of this is normal.
     “Without precedent in U.S. history we have a president who sees profit as the natural and immediate spoils of office.” (Ref. 2)

     It was said that President Donald Trump's first year in the White House may have gotten off to a slow start, with no major legislation passed, but his private business interests were certainly booming in 2017. The first family enjoyed a successful year of deals, and a number of projects that were in the pipeline well before the Trump presidency began. [3]

     “Several Trump business ventures appeared to move forward in step with the president and first family conducting government affairs, including a deal in Argentina that was fast-tracked after Trump's call with President Mauricio Macri. Meanwhile, several licenses for Ivanka Trump's brand in China were approved as the first daughter enjoyed dinner with President Xi Jinping at Mar-a-Lago. [Emphasis mine]
     “Below are five of the ways the Trumps are getting richer while in the White House:

     “1. Trump's continued global business ventures, despite vows of ‘no new foreign deals.’

     “The president did not put his businesses in a blind trust upon taking office in January, even though ethics experts from both parties suggested he should do so. [Emphasis mine] The Trump Organization also {didn’t stop} its pursuit of global deals that {were} in the works for years. For example, Donald Trump Jr. {was} reportedly planning to launch two new luxury residencies in India . . . Ivanka Trump {was} granted exclusive rights to use her name in countries like China and Japan, allowing her business to sell high-end spa packages and accessories even as she {was working} as a senior adviser to the president.
     “New Trump-branded properties {were} popping up around the world, as projects that were previously shied away from {were} getting new energy, including a luxury beachfront resort in the Dominican Republic.

     “2. Business is booming at Mar-a-Lago.

     “Just days after Trump was inaugurated as the 45th president, his private property in West Palm, Florida, doubled its membership rate to $200,000. The president then began visiting Mar-a-Lago regularly almost immediately after moving to Washington, affectionately referring to the resort as his ‘Winter White House.’ Financial records he filed to the Office of Government Ethics revealed business was booming at Mar-a-Lago, jumping from $16 million in annual profits in 2015 to nearly $30 million in 2016. Trump's . . . records indicate Mar-a-Lago . . . pulled in $37 million since his 2016 filing {through 2017}.

     “3. Trump's new hotel in Washington raked in $20 million in its first few months.

     “The launch of Trump's new hotel in Washington, D.C., appeared to be perfectly timed with his transition into public service, opening as the president moved from his penthouse in New York City to the People's House.   . . . He even launched his re-election fundraising effort at the new hotel in June, which helped to raise $10 million for his 2020 campaign as major donors paid $35,000 to dine at his property.

     “4. The first family profits from visits to Trump-branded properties and golf courses.

     “Trump has spent 96 days {as of 2017} visiting his own properties, 76 of them at golf clubs. With each trip the president or first family take to a Trump-branded property, the government spends thousands of dollars to keep Secret Service agents and administration officials nearby. That includes more than $130,000 spent on golf carts alone. . .

     “5. Trump-branded book royalties are soaring

     “The first family's books have seen tremendous sales success throughout {2017}, with Trump's most famous title, The Art of the Deal, enjoying quite a comeback in 2017. The book's royalties have at least doubled since {2016}, when the president's financial disclosure statement said he earned between $50,000 and $100,000 on the 1987 publication. {In 2017}, Trump listed those royalties at somewhere between $100,000 and $1 million.
     “The president {wasn’t} the only family author raking in the cash. The first daughter's book, Women Who Work, reached the New York Times best-seller list after selling over 10,000 print copies in its first five days. And Trump's first wife, Ivana, {was} on a media tour across the country to promote her new book on the Trump family, Raising Trump. (Ref. 3)

     While it's clear that Donald Trump has been raking in the shekels as a result of his being the president of the United States, questions have been raised concerning the president’s daughter and son-in-law profiting from Trump’s presidency.

     Jared Kushner, President Donald Trump's son-in-law and White House adviser, “failed to obtain a permanent security clearance for more than a year, likely due to the many conflicts of interest between his {then} current job and his family business. . . Next came a Washington Post report that several foreign governments {aimed} to manipulate Kushner via those same business entanglements.
     "Finally, in the coup de grace, the New York Times reported . . . that two companies gave loans to Kushner's business after meeting with him in the White House. . .
      - - -
     “. . . Kushner never fully divorced himself from his family business before moving into the administration, and even if everything he's done thus far has been on the up and up . . . {there is} the appearance that he is being bought and sold by international actors . . .
     “And Kushner has priors making things look much worse. He took meetings with foreign financiers after his father-in-law won the 2016 election, and his family played up his White House position when it went 'round the world buckraking. There's no indication that he's not mixing business with politics beyond his word saying otherwise . . .
     “Ivanka Trump, too, can't keep her personal life and her administration role separate. . .
      - - -
     “Of course, the perception that Kushner (and therefore Ivanka Trump) is profiting off the presidency is perhaps more understandable given that the president himself is absolutely profiting off it. Trump has not only failed to sever himself from his business as he promised he would, but is making off with public funds via payments to his resorts and clubs. He is also profiting from various domestic groups and foreign interests making the prudent calculation that hosting their events at Trump businesses and staying in Trump hotels is a way to curry favor with the man himself.” (Ref. 4)

     Questions have been raised concerning first daughter Ivanka Trump's business operations and her connection to the White House.

     In 2017, “A key member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee . . . joined a chorus of congressional Democrats calling for Ivanka Trump's security clearance to be reviewed because her failure to fully divest herself from her business empire {posed} serious potential for conflicts of interest.
     "{The} Democratic Senator, . . . the ranking member of the GOP-controlled committee, {demanded} the review and {called} for the first daughter to lose her security clearance if . . . found to be in violation of conflicts of interest statutes. {This} came after he expressed concern with {Ivanka} Trump's involvement in the World Bank's new Women Entrepreneurs Finance Initiative (We-Fi), which will provide millions to help women entrepreneurs in developing countries.
     ". . .{The senator said.} ‘What is not allowed is for anyone to profit off holding a public position. We should have full disclosure of all her financial interests, and when you don't have that, it raises serious questions. Does that involve her security clearance? Absolutely.’
     “. . . foreign governments could use the women's finance fund to curry favor with {Ivanka} Trump, a White House senior adviser whose women's fashion brand could profit off her relationship with the World Bank.
     “The new initiative promoting women's businesses and {Ivanka} Trump's involvement in its successful launch . . . {came} at a time when her fashion brand {was} continuing a global expansion {it was} eyeing for years. The first daughter, who did not put the Ivanka Trump company in a blind trust upon joining the Donald Trump administration, . . . raised concerns over her possible mixing of business and international diplomacy. The first daughter sat in on a meeting between her father and Japanese President Shinzo Abe at the same time her company was reaching a licensing deal in Tokyo with Sanei International, a company in which the Japanese government owns a majority of shares. [Emphasis mine]
     “Her brand also secured three new trademarks from the Chinese government on . . . the same night {Ivanka} Trump and her husband, Jared Kushner, enjoyed a steak and Dover sole dinner at Mar-a-Lago with Chinese President Xi Jinping and his wife.
     “The Ivanka Trump brand, meanwhile, profited mightily at home and overseas since the {2016} election. Sales hit record levels in 2017, and U.S. exports of her products, primarily to China, shot up 166 percent in 2016.  . . .
      - - -
     “Ivanka Trump has no official position in the World Bank {We-Fi} fund, but world leaders praised her for spearheading the initiative during the G-20 summit in July {2017}, when the fund was announced. The United States has pledged $50 million to the fund, joining partner countries including Russia, China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Norway.
     “{The Democratic senator said that he was} concerned the growth of women's businesses {might} not be the sole reason for current or future nations partnering with We-Fi, but that governments could instead use their funding to get closer to {the first daughter}, one of the president's closest advisers.
      - - -
     “Members of Congress have also called {Ivanka's husband, Jared} Kushner's security clearance into question, as he may have profited from his own business dealings while serving in the White House.  . . .
     “Unlike Kushner, however, {Ivanka} Trump's businesses remain shrouded in secrecy, as the Ivanka Trump fashion brand has limited public information it used to provide about international companies working with the business throughout 2017.” (Ref. 5)

     President Trump may rail against Hunter Biden receiving a large salary from a Ukrainian gas company while his father was vice president, but Donald Trump and his family have already raked in millions of dollars as a result of his being president of the United States. And many of these Trump family money-making ventures involve foreign companies and foreign governments.

     “When candidate Donald Trump said he was going to ‘drain the swamp,’ most people thought it meant he would stop corruption in Washington D.C. That means limiting access of lobbyists, curbing deals with foreign governments, and refusing to profit off the White House.
     “Well, that never happened. In fact, since Trump got to D.C., America has seen an unprecedented attack on presidential ethics. We’ve witnessed Trump campaign donors get cushy White House jobs . . . and a spokeswoman promote Ivanka brands on TV.
     “Call it Swamp 2.0, or ‘The D.C. Swamp on Steroids.’ But no one is profiting like Trump himself. Since the president continues profiting from his businesses, each of the 110 days Trump spent at his properties in 2017 was a marketing event. Likewise, every time someone stays at the Old Post Office in D.C., Trump gets paid.
     “But these are just a few examples of Trump and family monetizing the presidency.” (Ref. 6)

     Let’s see eight of the ways in which Donald Trump and famly are making money off the office of the President of the United States. (from Ref. 6)

     1. Trump’s hotels: Trump hotel income jumped from $33.8 million in 2016 to $60.5 million in 2017.
     According to financial disclosures, Trump hotel revenue soared over the past few years. In 2015, records show just $16.7 million in hotel and resort revenues. However, that amount doubled to $33.8 million during the campaign and election year. Since Trump began occupying the White House, hotel income jumped about 80%, reaching $60.8 million in 2017.
     These extraordinary numbers appear easy to explain. After all, Trump opened the Old Post Office hotel in D.C. late in 2016 despite the clear guideline that 'No elected official of the Government of the United States . . . shall be admitted to any share or part of this Lease.' Since then, it has become the go-to hotel for any foreign visitor looking to win favors from the Trumps. It’s also become the headquarters of GOP activity in D.C.

     2. Trump campaign events at Trump properties: Various Trump properties banked at least $720,000 from Trump’s own campaign events.
     In 2017 alone, Trump’s 2020 campaign spent $720,064 at buildings Trump owns. Right here is an example why U.S. presidents are expected to divest from their businesses. Since Trump still holds these properties, he and his family make bonus money every time he holds a fundraiser.

     3. Golf club memberships: After the election, Trump signaled he would spend a great deal of time at his Mar-a-Lago resort in Florida. So the club simply doubled its membership fees to $200,000 before taxes. USA Today found that executives from 50 government contractors and 21 lobbyists hold memberships at Trump clubs. In the first eight months of 2017, two-thirds of those executives and lobbyists played golf on days Trump was there. The swamp was never so convenient for doing business.

     4. Trump’s own golf trips: Secret Service golf-cart rentals alone cost taxpayers $137,000 in nine months and those payments go to Trump’s business. Not only do Trump’s frequent golf trips burn taxpayer dollars; they also make the Trumps lots of money.

     5. Republican fundraisers: The Republican National Committee (RNC) spent over $300,000 at Trump properties in 2016 and 2017. Since the Trump D.C. hotel is a block from the U.S. Justice Department and close to the White House, anyone who wants to make a contribution to Trump’s pockets simply books events there. The same goes for Trump Tower in New York and Mar-a-Lago. In 2016, the RNC spent $146,521 at Trump properties. The RNC topped that figure in 2017, when it spent $173,416.

     6. New real estate investors: After Trump won the election, prices of real estate at Trump Tower in New York began to skyrocket. Demand cooled off as people got to know the new president, but that didn’t stop Trump business from recording $168.5 million in revenue in 2017 — the best of any year disclosed. According to a report by USA Today, about 70% of Trump’s buyers were LLCs, so we don’t know the identity of them. Who’d want to hide such a thing?

     7. The Trump online store: Want to show your #MAGA pride? Buy a made-somewhere-other-than-the-USA polo shirt that says “Trump” on the front. You can find one ($90) at the Trumpstore.com site that launched in fall 2017. (It’s proudly “decorated” in America, too.) Here is another obvious money grab by the president and his family.

     8. Holiday parties: Want to rub shoulders with one of the most powerful men in the world? Any Mar-a-Lago member or guest can do so for $600 and $750 per person, respectively, at the Trump resort on New Year’s Eve.

     In the meantime. President Trump has accused - without proof - Hunter Biden of unethically profiting from his father’s time as vice-president. That’s like The pot calling the kettle black. And Trump has asked some foreign governments to help him back up these allegations in time for the 2020 election - perhaps with a presidential quid pro quo in return.

     It’s been said that People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. This saying should apply, equally as well, to those who dwell in the White House and, at the same time,we are also reminded of the teachings of Jesus who said that He that is without sin among you, let him cast the first stone . . .

     It’s true that “the Ukrainian gas company Burisma Holdings hired Hunter Biden and other foreign advisers in an attempt to clean up its image and curry international favor — no doubt with the {then} vice president, among others. It’s {also} clear that in this and other respects — including a China investment that Trump has also attacked — the younger Biden traded on his father’s name and portfolio in a way that was unseemly at best.
     “But the worst that the elder Biden can be credibly accused of here is a hands-off approach to his son’s business. [Emphasis mine] There is no evidence that he facilitated or was influenced by it. . .” (Ref. 7)

     On 13 October 2019, Hunter Biden announced that he was “stepping down from the board of a Chinese-backed private equity company and promising to forgo all foreign work if his father, former U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, is elected president in 2020.
     “After months of keeping a relatively low-profile as President Donald Trump leveled a barrage of unsubstantiated [Emphasis mine] accusations of corruption at him, the younger Biden is publicly vowing to avoid any conflict of interest.
     “According to a statement released on his behalf by his lawyer . . . Biden said he’ll resign at the end of the month from the management company of a private equity fund that’s backed by Chinese state-owned entities. He also pledged that he wouldn’t work for any foreign-owned companies or serve on their boards during a potential Biden administration. He reiterated that he never discussed his business activities with his father. [Emphasis mine]
      - - -
     “Trump and his personal lawyer Rudy Giuliani have repeatedly claimed, without providing evidence [Emphasis mine], that Hunter Biden made millions of dollars from China while his father was vice president. They’ve also made unsubstantiated claims [Emphasis mine] that Joe Biden used his position as the U.S. administration’s point person on Ukraine to help quash an investigation in 2016 into the owner of one of the country’s largest private gas companies where Hunter sat on the board.
      - - -
     “{Hunter} Biden’s pledge to avoid foreign work if his father wins the White House sets him apart from Trump’s children, who have continued working with foreign business partners from Dubai to Indonesia and India while their father sits in the White House. [Emphasis mine] After Trump won the presidency in 2016, he handed the running of the Trump Organization to his sons, Don Jr. and Eric, and said they wouldn’t do any new overseas deals.
     “But they have continued to push the Trump Organization’s existing foreign deals, including visits to promote luxury resorts in Indonesia, condo sales in India and an expansion of their golf resort in Scotland.” [Emphasis mine] (Ref. 8)

     Continuing the process of presidential enrichment, in October of 2019, we find another very questionable deal that ultimately lines the president’s pockets. “U.S. President Donald Trump will host next year's Group of Seven economic summit of leaders of developed nations at his Florida golf resort, a move Democrats and others decried as more evidence of the president misusing his office for personal gain. [Emphasis mine]
     “White House acting chief of staff Mick Mulvaney . . . told a news conference that the G7 summit would take place at Trump National Doral golf resort near Miami from June 10 to 12, after the administration chose it from about a dozen potential sites.
     “The Republican president faces criticism and a number of congressional investigations over his finances and potential conflicts of interest stemming from his real estate business, which he still owns.
      - - -
     “The U.S. constitution's emoluments clause prohibits government officials from receiving salaries, fees or profits from foreign and domestic governments without congressional approval.
     “Democrats have said they would investigate Trump's plan to host the G7 at his property after he floated the idea [Emphasis mine] in August.
     “House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and other Democratic lawmakers decried the choice.
     " ‘The constitution is clear: the president cannot accept gifts or payments from foreign governments. No one is above the law,’ Pelosi wrote on Twitter.
     “In a statement, House Judiciary Committee Chairman Jerrold Nadler called the announcement ‘among the most brazen examples yet of the President's corruption.’ Nadler said the committee would continue investigating ‘regarding these matters’.
      - - -
     “Trump has repeatedly attacked Joe Biden, a leading Democratic presidential candidate and former vice-president, over his son's business ties in Ukraine and China, which Trump has repeatedly, and without evidence, [Emphasis mine] called corrupt.
      - - -
     “On the sidelines of the annual meetings of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, Ghana's finance minister quipped, ‘Could you imagine if the president of Ghana did something like that? It would not go down well.’
      - - -
     “Other Democrats said they were amazed at the announcement . . .
     " ‘All pretense is gone,’ said Representative Peter Welch, a member of the oversight committee. Referring to Trump's eldest daughter, he added, ‘ He'll probably have Ivanka there, checking them in and taking deposits.’ " (Ref. 9)

     The outrage that followed Trump’s announcement about his Doral golf resort hosting the G7 meeting, coupled with the President’s Kurdish blunder and the impeachment hearings taking place in Congress, forced Trump to make another of his frequent course reversals. After announcing on Thursday, 17 October 2019, that the G7 summit in 2020 would take place at the Trump National Doral Golf Resort, Trump backed down and reversed himself in a series of tweets on the following Saturday night, just two days later.

     The “White House faced immense criticism from Democrats, former government officials, and even some Republicans in Congress. Observers hinted the latter may have triggered the president to look elsewhere.
     “ ‘My sense is that he backed down here only because of cracks in Republican support that caused him to fear a much larger rebellion,’ Sen. Richard Blumenthal (D-CT) commented. Blumenthal, along with more than 200 other Democrats, is suing the president for allegedly violating the Constitution’s Emoluments Clause which bans federal officials from accepting foreign payments.” (Ref. 10)


  1. What Is the Emoluments Clause?, Brian Duignan, Encyclopaedia Britannica,
    Accessed 13 October 2019.
  2. Ka-Ching, Robert Schlesinger, usnews.com, 5 March 2018.
    Michael Coblenz, News Tribune, 30 October 2017.
  4. The Kids Are All Wrong, Pat Garofalo, usnews.com , 1 March 2018.
  6. em>Here Are the Ways Trump Cashes In on Being President, Eric Schaal, cheatsheet.com,
    14 January 2019.
  7. Editorial: Trump, Biden and the Ukrainian conspiracies, Chronicle Editorial Board,
    San Francisco Chronicle, 12 October 2019.
  8. Hunter Biden Steps Down From Chinese Board as Trump Attacks, Stephanie Baker, Bloomberg, 14 October 2019.
  9. Trump to host G7 summit at his Florida golf resort, sparking criticism, Reuters, msn news,
    17 October 2019.
  10. President Trump Backs Down on Hosting G7 Meeting at His Florida Doral Resort, Tara Law, yahoo.com, 20 October 2019.

  1 January 2020 {Article 394; Politics_55}    
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