The One-State Solution

The One-State Solution

© David Burton 2023


     On 7 October 2023, the despicable creatures masquerading as human beings in the region known as the Gaza Strip committed a despicable atrocity against the State of Israel, Jewish people around the world, as well as against all decent human beings on this earth – they attacked the Jewish state and massacred innocent civilians in violation of all civilized rules of conduct. By no means, was this their first such contemptable act of inhumanity. This inhumane act, identified as a pogrom, was ostensibly led by the terrorist group identified as Hamas - the Islamic Resistance Movement - a Sunni Islamist political and military organization – an extremist group of Islamic terrorists.

     Consequently and justifiably, Israel responded with a vengeance and declared war against Hamas. As the fighting and the resulting death and destruction raged on, the question of what to do when the fighting died down was once again raised. My answer: Impose a ONE STATE SOLUTION! Israel needs to forever end the more than seven-decade-old problem that has plagued it and the Middle East by telling the world that, for the foreseeable future, there will be no such thing as a “two state solution”. There will be just one state; that being the State of Israel.[1]

     The voices of all Israelis and all Jews around the world rose in unison. “This war is not about territory. It is not about land. It is about our future and the future of our children. The very breath of every Jew who walks this planet. Shouts of ‘From the river to sea…’ and ‘By any means’ are calls for genocide against our entire nation.(Ref. 2)

     For several decades, the so-called “Palestinians” have demonstrated that they haven’t earned the right to a nation (state) of their own. For more than 70 years, they have scuttled every opportunity to form a real nation. For more than 7 decades, they have been at war with Israel,the one true democracy in the Middle East. For more than 70 years, their real oppressors - the Palestinian Authority, (PA), Fatah, Hamas, Islamic Jihad, the Muslim Brotherhood, and all such - have lied to them and kept them destitute and oppressed.

     At the end of 2023, the “Palestinians” in Gaza experienced the lowest point in their history. Their attack on Israel left them at the nadir of their existence. Gaza lay in ruins, its streets lined with rubble, their society was fragmented, in humanitarian crisis and in chaos. Still, they remained motivated by a sense of victimhood, delegitimization, and mostly by a continuing hatred of Jews and Israel. The “Palestinian” ruler – Hamas – has indoctrinated and brainwashed its drones to die for Allah. They fight on while brainwashed, a process that began when they were very young. It will take more than one generation to deprogram these mindless victims of the Hamas and Islamic Jihad indoctrination.[3]

     The Islamic extremists in Gaza and the West Bank must no longer be allowed to ever again attack the Jews of Israel. The “atrocities of Oct. 7 {2023} – where 1,400 Israelis and foreign nationals were butchered, raped and mutilated and hundreds of others, ranging from infants and toddlers to octogenarians, were kidnapped and stuck in Hamas tunnels in Gaza . . .” must never be allowed to be repeated. NEVER AGAIN!

     It should not be forgotten that Israel tried for decades to give the “Palestinians” in Gaza a state of their own. Let’s remember the peace agreements Israel entered into with the “Palestinians”; that the entire Gaza Strip was handed to the “Palestinians” in 2005; that Hamas, a militant theocracy, took control of the area in 2007, and created an open-air prison for its 2 million residents. Recall the billions of dollars that Hamas received in foreign aid to that was supposed to be used to create infrastructure, such as new housing, roads, schools and subsidies for new businesses – it never was! And don’t ignore the hundreds of millions that lined the pockets of Hamas leaders who lived overseas, and who directed the rest of the funding to go to building hundreds of miles of underground tunnels to house the Hamas military – even as its impoverished residents continually endured power outages and suffered high unemployment. NEVER AGAIN!

     On that infamous day in October of 2023, more than 2,400 Hamas terrorists infiltrated Israel’s southern border to torture, abduct and murder as many people as they could. The terrorists set houses on fire, some with entire families inside, and killed those who attempted to escape. They shot, raped, abducted and murdered hundreds of young adults at a dance and music festival where they were celebrating peace. The terrorists took victims back to Gaza and paraded them, alive and lifeless, in front of cheering crowds. This was a manifestation of pure evil.
     What moral code could possibly justify or contextualize the murder of more than 1,400 people and the kidnapping of civilians – including children and the elderly?
     Israel must destroy Hamas, the terror group that led these atrocities and which that not only seeks to destroy Israel, but that has also been spreading misery among the people they were elected to govern. It is important that all reasonable people affirm the necessity and the justice of Israel’s aim to wipe out the evil of Hamas from the face of the earth.
     Those in Hamas and similar Islamic extremist organizations do not adhere to Western values and principles; they do not believe in human rights. Israel has the most morally upright military in the world. Unlike Hamas, Israel does not deliberately target civilians. To make military operations more complicated, Hamas deliberately embeds civilians in its military infrastructure. Just one more reason why, Israel must not relent until the evil that is Hamas and all similar evils in the region are totally eliminated – not just for the sake of Jewish lives, but also for the sake of those “Palestinians” living under the thumbs of the Islamic terrorists.[4]

The Two-State Solution

     The so-called “Two-State Solution” was first put forth nearly 100 years ago in 1937 when the Peel Commission recommended the partition of Palestine between Jews and Arabs. At the time, Palestine was administered by Great Britain under a mandate issued by the League of Nations at the San Remo Conference in 1920. The Jews reluctantly accepted the partition recommendation while the Arabs rejected it. This was the first time, but not the last, when the Arabs of Palestine rejected the opportunity to have a nation of their own in Palestine.
     In November, 1947, United nations Resolution 181 was passed by UN General Assembly. It called for the partition of Palestine into Arab and Jewish states, with the city of Jerusalem as a corpus separtatum - ”separate entity” - to be governed by aa special international regime. [5]

     As usual, the Arabs rejected the resolution and the Jews reluctantly agreed to accept it. The Arabs wanted no part of a two-state solution.

     Previously, from 1516 until 1918, Palestine had been ruled by the Islamic Ottoman Empire. For that entire 400-year span of time, the Palestinian-Arabs did not have their own nation, even though Palestine was under Islamic control. Many Palestinian-Arabs identified themselves as Syrians which was also part of the Ottoman Empire.[5]

     For decades, the most widely touted solution to the Israel-Palestine conflict has been based on the idea of two independent states — one Israeli and one “Palestinian” — encompassing separate parts of the historic land of Palestine. Known as the “two-state solution,” it has long been the agreed-upon framework by the United Nations (UN), most of the world’s countries, and regional organizations such as the European Union (EU). The UN General Assembly frequently votes on resolutions calling for a settlement to the conflict based on two states. These resolutions usually receive the support of all the world’s nations except for Israel, the United States, and a handful of others.
     Support for the two-state solution has also enjoyed support from across the establishment political spectrum in the West. In 2002, then-US President George W. Bush (a Republican) became the first president to publicly endorse it. On the other end of the truncated spectrum that represents establishment political thought, independent Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders (a self-described democratic socialist) has also pledged his support for the two-state framework. Even some “radical professors” in the academic world have said they think it’s the most realistic option.
     But in November of 2023, a high-ranking UN human rights official issued a damning condemnation of both the viability and morality of the two-state solution. He slammed the two-state solution as no longer possible nor desirable. Numerous high-profile supporters of the two-state solution have in recent years openly repudiated it and come out in favor of the rival “one-state solution.” That would mean a state in which you have equal rights for Christians, Muslims and Jews based upon human rights and based upon the rule of law.[6]

Israel Ceded Control of Gaza to Palestinian-Arabs

     In 2005, Ariel Sharon unilaterally disengaged from Gaza, leaving the region totally in control of the Palestinian Authority (PA). The Palestinian-Arabs now had their chance for a two-state solution. Instead, they allowed Hamas to replace the PA in 2007. Gaza then became a base for radical Islamic terrorism, including the oppression of the Palestinian-Arabs living there.[5]

Gaza Under Control of the Palestinian-Arabs

     After Israel relinquished control of the Gaza Strip to the Palestinian- Arabs, adherence to democratic norms ceased. Human rights were routinely violated – the rule of law was capriciously applied, arbitrary arrests, detention without trial of political adversaries, torture, press censorship, repression of union activity, suppression of dissent and restrictions on assembly for most forms of opposition became the norm[5, Pge 25] and have continued to this day. At the same time violence against Israel and Israelis intensified.

     In turning Gaza over to Palestinian-Arab control, Israel said they were giving the people of Gaza the opportunity to create their Singapore; but rather than build for their people, Hamas used it to attack Israel, launching thousands of rockets into southern Israel, invading Israel, murdering innocent Israeli civilians[5, Pge 40] and starting a bloody all-out war in 2023.

What comes after the 2023 war in Gaza?

     Israel’s Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu has called for Gaza to be “demilitarized, deradicalized, and rebuilt.” Before anything can happen, of course, Israel must win the war. Israel must first totally wipe out Hamas as a force in the Gaza Strip. For Israel and its allies, there is no ambiguity at this stage about what must be done. As House Democratic Leader Hakeem Jeffries declared, it is vital that Israel “decisively defeat Hamas and make sure that this brutal terrorist regime can never rise again.”
     It was suggested that after the elimination of Hamas and similar terrorist organizations in the Gaza strip, Israel should establish “governance . . . under the Palestinian Authority.” That is a dreadful idea for almost too many reasons to count. To begin with, the Palestinian Authority is thoroughly loathed by ordinary “Palestinians”, who routinely express their contempt for the PA leader, Mahmoud Abbas, and his henchmen. It has been deeply corrupt for as long as it has existed and is notorious for its incompetence. Like the Hamas regime in Gaza, the Palestinian Authority rules its West Bank fiefdom with brutality, torture, and arbitrary arrests.
     The PA ruled in Gaza, with hideous results. In 2005, after Israel voluntarily withdrew from the territory, dismantling every Jewish community and evacuating the nearly 10,000 Jews who lived in them, it was the PA that took over. A year later, Hamas soundly defeated Abbas’s Fatah party in the last free elections ever held in the Palestinian territories. In 2007, Hamas staged a bloody coup against the PA, throwing its supporters to their deaths from the tops of buildings and seizing control of the entire Gaza Strip. Any attempt to reimpose the Palestinian Authority on Gaza will not produce a better result.
     It’s a fallacy to believe that Fatah, the largest faction of the Palestinian Authority, is a force for moderation or compromise. It is in every significant respect as homicidal as Hamas, with an “armed wing” — the al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigades — that has carried out innumerable atrocities and has been designated a terrorist organization by the United States, Canada, and the European Union.
     For 30 years, Fatah and the Palestinian Authority — first under Yasser Arafat, then under Abbas — have made it clear that they are as hostile to peaceful coexistence with a Jewish state as is Hamas. Again and again, beginning with the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993 and culminating in Israel’s Gaza withdrawal in 2005, Israel and the West have provided the existing Palestinian leadership with land, political power, money, and recognition in a futile effort to end the conflict. That is the strategy that led to the murderous second intifada in the early 2000s, to the waves of rocket and terror attacks from Gaza since 2005, and to the ghastly bloodbath of Oct. 7.
     Gaza wasn’t always a terrorist hellhole. In 1977, just a decade after Israel’s victory in the Six Day War, Gaza was under Israeli military administration. Neither Hamas nor the Palestinian Authority existed at that time. Back then, before the wishful delusions of the “peace process” had taken hold — tens of thousands of Palestinians crossed daily into Israel to go to work and Gaza was so safe that Jewish visitors on tour buses could enter without hindrance or fear, strolling around Gaza City, taking pictures, and haggling with souvenir sellers. Gaza then may not have been an Eden. But neither was it ruled by a harsh Palestinian dictatorship rooted in an infamous terrorist organization — the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) — that deflected attention from its thuggishness and failures by relentlessly promoting a message of genocidal fury against Israel.
     Today, Gaza desperately needs decent governance. And the only way to nurture leaders who can provide such governance is from the ground up, by methodically detoxifying Gaza society, overhauling its educational and media networks, and steadily, patiently undoing the culture of hatred in which generations of young “Palestinians” have been raised. This won’t happen overnight.
     Israel, encouraged by the international community, made a fateful blunder in 1993 when it agreed that the “Palestinians” should be ruled by the likes of Arafat, his lieutenant Abbas, and their loyalists. The result, 30 years later, was the worst day of antisemitic killing since the Holocaust. The terrible war that Israel is now engaged in — terrible for “Palestinians” and Israelis alike — offers a chance to set Gaza on a new course. A new Israeli administration in the territory, explicitly committed to nourishing a healthy civil society, is the best option for paving a path to effective and peaceful self-rule. Countless “Palestinians”, chafing under brutal Hamas dictatorship in Gaza, have long yearned for a better and freer life. Now there is a chance for them to achieve it. Once Israel has won the war and eliminated the Islamic extremists that created the Gaza hell-hole, they and their “Palestinian” neighbors in Gaza together can win the peace.[7]

     Israel must finish dealing with Hamas, after which it must immediately proceed with the “dehamasification” of Gaza. (See Ref. 8) It must ruthlessly root out and eliminate any and all vestiges of Hamas and the other extremist and fundamentalist Islamic terror groups. No mercy must be shown in accomplishing this task. Mercy is a word these creatures do not recognize nor understand.

The One-State Solution

     The final nail in the coffin of the two-state solution came on 7 October 2023 when Hamas attacked the southern region of Israel from Gaza. The obstacles to implementing a sustainable and enduring two-state-solution had been exponentially multiplying over the previous 3-decades. Negotiating a two-state solution required a degree of trust on both sides that even the miraculous could not conjure. And even if an agreements tween the two sides were reached, it would not be sufficient to secure a lasting peace. Over the years, distrust continued to harden and increasingly became a source of hatred and paranoia on the part of the Palestinian-Arabs controlled by extremists in Hamas. After three decades of failure and more than five decades of bitter animosity, it is time to recognize the impossibility of reaching a two-state solution.[5, Pges 7-8]

     With respect to the Gaza Strip, the one-state solution will require Israel to “administer” the territory much as the Allied Powers did in Germany and Japan following World War II. This “administration” will have to continue until such time as all vestiges of Islamic terrorism are rooted out. Among the first acts that must be performed are the cleansing of the schools and the mosques that have been used to inculcate the masses of Gaza with a hatred of the State of Israel and of all Jews. The literature and teaching material that have been a source of the vile hatred must be destroyed and replaced with material of moderation. The teachers and preachers of hatred and violence must be purged from the schools, pulpits and media. This will be a long-term effort and will require constant monitoring to ensure that radical Islam is not permitted to return.

     The effort to permanently cleanse the Gaza Strip of violent radical Islam should be a burden shared by all peace-loving nations in the world, particularly the more moderate Islamic nations. The Arab and Islamic nations of the world can more effectively and more rapidly bring about the needed changes in Gaza than Israel. If they truly want to ensure peace and tranquility in the region, then they must step up and wholeheartedly support the reconstruction effort in Gaza. The cleansing of Gaza should not and must not be left solely as Israel’s problem.

     Israel will maintain "overall security responsibility" in Gaza "for an indefinite period" after the war, Benjamin Netanyahu has said. The Israeli prime minister told ABC News that Israeli troops are likely to remain there Long after the current conflict is concluded "because we've seen what happens when we don't have . . . that security responsibility". Netanyahu's comments offered the clearest indication yet that Israel plans to maintain control over the territory that is home to 2.3 million Palestinians.
     The problem for Israelis right now is that no one else wants to rule the Gaza Strip". Put bluntly, "taking full control of the territory may be the easy part . . . The more daunting challenge could be finding a replacement who's willing and able to run Gaza." Some have suggested that Israel let the Palestinian Authority take charge of administering Gaza.
     Such a scenario fails to take into account the "historically weak state of the PA" in Gaza, said The Times of Israel. The West Bank-based PA has been "plagued by corruption" and is "unpopular among Palestinians for cooperating with Israel", the paper added, making its takeover of the territory a non-starter for many Gazans.
     "It is unlikely, even if it so desired, that the PA has the capacity to govern Gaza." Multiple failed attempts to broker a meaningful rapprochement between Hamas and the PA over the years reflect, he said, "wider splits and tensions in Palestinian society that it would be difficult, if not impossible, to negotiate, not least if the PA were to be seen returning to power in Gaza riding on an Israeli tank".
     Former Israeli PM and chief of the defense staff, Ehud Barak, has suggested that a multinational Arab force could take control of Gaza after the military campaign ends. "It is far from being inconceivable that, backed by the Arab League and the United Nations Security Council, a multinational Arab force could be mustered, with some symbolic units from non-Arab countries included," he said.
     The European Union (EU), meanwhile, has suggested Gaza could become an international protectorate after the war. The president of the European Commission said that different ideas were being discussed on how to ensure Hamas could not rebuild after the conflict ended, "including an international peace force under UN mandate".
     The question of how Gaza should be governed when the war is over will likely have no simple answer and what is first implemented may not even to be the right starting point. It would be a mistake to assume a 'day after' as if the 2023 war with Hamas in Gaza were a conventional war that would clearly and cleanly give way to an agreed or imposed postwar arrangement.[9]

     Can Palestinian-Arabs and Palestinian-Jews ever co-exist in the Holy Land? My answer is an emphatic YES! “Peace is not impossible, even among people who have been at war with each other for decades, or, for that matter, centuries.” (Ref. 10).

     Once Israel finishes dealing with Hamas, it must immediately proceed to “dehamasify” Gaza just as the Allies “denazified” Germany following World War II. It must ruthlessly root out and eliminate any and all vestiges of Hamas and the other extremist and fundamentalist Islamic terror groups. No mercy must be shown in accomplishing this task. Mercy is a word these creatures do not recognize nor understand.

     Then, as Israel’s Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu has firmly stated, Gaza must be “demilitarized, deradicalized, and rebuilt.” (Ref. 11) In the years – more realistically decades – after the elimination of Islamic radicals and terrorists in Gaza, Israel would do well to develop an indigenous police force to enforce day-to-day rules of law in the territory.

     What would a one-state solution look like? Today, one cannot answer that question. There are innumerable configurations for such an entity: bi-national, federated, separate-but-equal, confederation, etc. The answer will evolve over many decades of – hopefully declining - strife and animosity, coupled with many governmental experiments. It is just much too early to predict into what the region - and the rest of the world, for that matter - will eventually evolve. Look at what was required to approach solutions in Southern Africa, Northern Ireland and elsewhere. Some of the considerations that will be debated and argued over for decades to come are indicated below.

     In a confederation - sometimes referred to as “The Holy Land Confederation” - a sovereign Palestinian state, recognized by Israel, would be created through land swaps. Gazans who chose to live in Israel and Israelis who chose to live in Gaza would be permanent residents of their chosen nation, meaning they would have the right to work and travel but not vote. (Palestinian-Arab permanent residents in Israel could vote in Palestinian-Arab elections and Israeli permanent residents in Palestine-Arab territory could vote in Israeli elections.) [12]

     One proposal suggests “simply” annexing Gaza, and granting its population Israeli citizenship while maintaining Israel's current status as a Jewish state with recognized minorities. The opposition to such a solution among both Israelis and Gazans is currently immense and strenuous. Today, this solution is totally impractical. In another century, maybe the world will change.
     In any event, it has been argued that annexation of Gaza would only add an acceptable number of Palestinian-Arabs to the population of Israel and that a one-state solution with a Jewish majority and a political system rooted in Jewish values was the best way to guarantee the protection of democratic values and the rights of all minorities.
     Another possibility is that after many years without hatred of Israel and Jews being taught to Gazan children, the new generations of Gazan people might come to realize the benefits of living in peace with an Israeli neighbor. Who knows what might result from such a realization and the absence of despotic fundamentalist Islamic control?[13]

     More than a generation has passed since the signing of the Oslo Accords between Israel and the “Palestinians” in 1993. “Thirty years have passed since then, and it is reasonable to conclude that the two-state solution is not working, and never will.” (Ref. 14) "If the two-state solution was not acceptable to Israel, then the one-state solution was the only way where Jews, Muslims and (a) good percentage of Christians could live to exercise equal political rights," (Ref. 15) The Oslo Accords were guided by the misguided concept that a two-state solution would finally resolve the conflict—but three decades later, Israelis and “Palestinians” remain caught in the sad, frustrating and vicious cycle that has led to the Hamas attack on Israel in October 2023. But today, dramatic events in the Middle East offer unprecedented conditions for a breakthrough, because today, for the first time, Israel and major Arab states share long-term strategic interests: blocking Iran's expansion; fostering stability; and diminishing militant Islamic momentum.
     Such a breakthrough requires an outside-the-box approach based upon three major premises. First, it is time to cast aside the concept of an Israeli-Palestinian agreement in favor of an Israeli-Arab agreement. Jordan, Egypt, and other Gulf states must be partners to such an agreement. Second, a “one-state solution” should be the end objective, with the understanding that achieving this goal is unrealistic in the near term. The one-state solution should be the long-term goal – not the near-term goal. Third, the only realistic goal at this juncture is to create interim arrangements to set the ground for a final agreement.
     After the conclusion of the current Israel-Hamas war, it’s desirable that a a Gaza National Authority (GNA) be formed consisting of Jordan, Egypt and other Gulf States. The GNA would be authorized to negotiate with Israel on all aspects of final arrangements for the Gaza Strip. Such agreements should formally be approved by the parties involved, including the UN General Assembly and Security Council. Some consequences of this arrangement could be the development of a port in the Gaza Strip, the opening of an airport there, and maintaining a viable border crossing into Egypt at Rafah, as well as a border crossing in Israel in northern Gaza.
     Such a plan can succeed because it is in the strategic interest of the countries concerned and they have the keys needed to succeed. The plan echoes core ideas of the Saudi peace initiative, yet also reflects the dramatic changes that took place in the Middle East since (the war in Syria, the emergence of ISIS, the widening and intensifying Iran-Arab power struggle). The plan also addresses the core challenges that perpetuate the vicious cycle of violence and conflict that confront Israelis and “Palestinians”.
     Security is, and will remain, the most important issue to Israel. Israelis do not trust the “Palestinians” – with good reason - and are thus unwilling to make any concessions that will compromise Israel's security. The involvement of Arab states as reliable counterparts will strengthen Israeli willingness to compromise if they have reason to believe that a stable and enduring agreement is achievable. The involvement of proactive Arab states will also aid in getting the Palestinian-Arabs to accept any arrangement made with Israel.
     Hopelessness and endless conflict can be replaced by a peaceful future, but only if the parties involved act differently. They must put aside the concept of a two-state Israeli-Palestinian agreement in favor of a “one-state” Israeli-Arab agreement as the only realistic means to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. A one-state solution does not require both parties to live peacefully under one roof. A one-state solution could mean living side-by-side in peace - this would be more likely. Such an agreement is achievable, maybe not today, but tomorrow or the day after.[16]

     Could the Palestinian Authority (PA) govern Gaza after Hamas is eliminated? Not a chance! Even the United States understands that is not a viable option. “The Palestinian Authority is currently unfit to govern a post-Hamas Gaza Strip, White House National Security Council spokesman John Kirby said” (Ref. 17) during an interview on ABC television with George Stephanopoulos at the start of December 2023.

     Kirby went on to says that what, “. . . [Netanyahu] said was right . . . you’ve got an unreformed P.A. And that’s unacceptable to him. I would tell you that’s unacceptable to us too.” (Ref. 17)


  1. Hamas, Wikipedia, Accessed 25 October 2023.
  2. The Fight Of Our Lives, The Jewish Press; pge, F1, 10 November 2023.
  3. Hamas will not raise a white flag, Ronni Shaked, Jewish Journal; pgs, 1, 11, 9 November 2023.
  4. North Shore Rabbis and Cantors Association: ‘Am Israel Chai’, Jewish Journal; pge, 5, 9 November 2023.
  5. THE TWO-STATE DELUSION, Padraig O’Malley, Penguin Books, 2015.
  6. The Two-State Solution for Palestine Has Long Been a “Joke” Even In United Nations Circles, Peter Bolton, counterpunch, 14 November 2023.
  7. Palestinians can win the peace once Israel has won the war, Jeff Jacoby, Boston Sunday Globe, pge K7,
    19 November 2023.
  8. Gaza After Hamas, David Burton,; ARTICLE 6xx, 21 December 2023.
  9. Who will govern Gaza after the war?, Elliott Goat, THE WEEK, 7 November 2023.
  10. A blueprint in bloodshed: The Troubles in Ireland then, the war between Israel and Hamas now, Jennifer Finney Boylan, Boston Sunday Globe, Pge K7, 26 November 2023.
  11. Too soon, perhaps, to imagine, but what would peace in Gaza mean?, Alan Stein, Boston Sunday Globe, Pge K6,
    26 November 2023.
  12. A pathway to a two-state solution for Palestinians and Israelis, Klara Vlahcevic Lisinski, The Boston Globe,
    17 November 2023.
  13. One-state solution, Wikipedia, Accessed 26 November 2023.
  14. One-state solution the only answer, Fred McKinney, stamford advocate, 25 November 2023.
  15. Pakistan President proposes 'one-state solution' to Palestine issue, sparks row, India Today, 22 November 2023.
  16. A Realistic Solution To The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Avi Melamed, Forbes, 5 April 2016.
  17. US: Palestinian Authority currently unfit to govern Gaza, World Israel News, 4 December 2023.


  28 December 2023 {ARTICLE 605; ISRAEL_82}    
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