America’s Rare Earth Problem

America’s Rare Earth Problem

© David Burton 2020

Rare Earth production

     What are rare earth minerals and why are they important?

     According to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, a rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM) is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium. Scandium and yttrium are considered rare-earth elements because they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and exhibit similar chemical properties, but have different electronic and magnetic properties.

     Despite their name, rare-earth elements are – with the exception of the radioactive promethium – relatively plentiful in the earth's crust, with cerium being the 25th most abundant element, more abundant than copper. However, because of their geochemical properties, rare-earth elements are typically dispersed and not often found concentrated. As a result, economically exploitable ore deposits are not common.

     The uses, applications, and demand for rare-earth elements has expanded over the years. Globally, most REEs are used for catalysts and magnets. In the United States, more than half of REEs are used for catalysts and ceramics. Important uses of rare-earth elements are in the production of high-performance magnets, alloys, glasses, and electronics. Two of the REEs are used for petroleum refining and as diesel additives. Neodymium is important in magnet production. Rare-earth elements in this category are used in the electric motors of hybrid and electric vehicles, generators in wind turbines, hard disc drives, portable electronics, microphones, and speakers.

     Cesium, Lanthanum and Neodymium are important in alloy making and in the production of fuel cells and nickel-metal hydride batteries. Cesium, Gallium and Neodymium are important in electronics and are used in the production of liquid digital displays (LCD’s), plasma screens, fiber optics, lasers, and in medical imaging.

     “Rare earths refer to 17 minerals with magnetic and conductive properties that help power most electronic devices. They are vital to the production of smartphones, tablets and smart speakers.
     “They are not actually ‘rare,’ and can be found in other countries — including the United States. But they're difficult to mine safely.
     “About a third of the world's rare earth deposits are found in China. Yet the country controls more than 90% of production, [Emphasis mine] according to the US Geological Survey, in part due to its lower labor costs and less stringent environmental regulations.
     “In addition to their use in electronics, rare earths are vital to many of the major weapons systems that the United States relies on for national security. [Emphasis mine]
     “That includes lasers, radar, sonar, night vision systems, missile guidance, jet engines and alloys for armored vehicles . . .” (Ref. 1)

     In mid-2020, “China fired a verbal rocket at U.S. arms maker Lockheed Martin . . . only to unleash a response which threatens its most strategically important industry, rare earths.
     “Because rare-earth elements have essential uses in a range of civil and military technologies, such as weapons guidance systems, China’s control of supply is a powerful commercial and diplomatic bargaining chip.
     “Earlier threats to cut-off supplies of the elements, especially the two most important heavy rare earths, neodymium and praseodymium, have caused short-term disturbances in the market with China eventually backing off in case it pushed too hard and international customers developed their own supplies.
     “A decade ago a dispute with Japan led to a Chinese rare earth embargo, but it sparked a response in the form of Japanese financial backing for a new rare earth mine in Australia and an associated processing facility in Malaysia.
     “This time around China is using threats of a rare earth embargo on Lockheed Martin following the U.S. company winning a contract to upgrade batteries of Patriot air defence missiles in Taiwan.
     “Whether China intends to proceed with an embargo is unclear but the threat itself has sparked a reaction which involves the U.S. Government and several allies in pushing ahead with plans to develop non-Chinese supplies of rare earths.
     “There has also been a significant reaction by investors who have boosted the share prices of companies in production or planning to develop rare earth mines.
     “The most important development after the threat to Lockheed Martin was a deal between the U.S. Defense Department and an Australian rare earth miner to push ahead, with a private U.S. partner, in planning the construction of a rare earth separation facility in Texas.
     “That was followed by . . . the Malaysian Government approving a proposed site for the permanent disposal of rare earth waste, an important step in ensuring the long term operation of a plant which processes ore mined by Lynas Corporation in Australia.
     “In effect, three countries have moved in near-unison to accelerate the development of a non-Chinese supply of rare earths in the days after Chinese targeted Lockheed Martin.
     “Australian involvement is through mining one of the world’s richest deposits of rare earths at Mt Weld in Western Australia. Malaysia is the home of first stage processing of the mildly radioactive ore which is why a permanent waste disposal site is important, and the U.S. will be the site of a separation plant to convert a cocktail of rare earth elements into a usable form.
     “That final step, which sees Lynas team up with a U.S. partner, Blue Line Corporation, and the Department of Defense, is the critical step in a multi-layered process and the one which could be the key in breaking the Chinese stranglehold of advanced rare earth processing.
     “Currently, even the material mined by Lynas in Australia and processed in Malaysia goes to China for final separation.
     “Investors are starting to recognise that this latest dispute between China and the international community might be the key to breaking the decades-long dominance of a strategically important industry.” (Ref. 2)

     The United States produces minimal rare earth minerals, but, in 2018,China produced more than 70% of the crucial minerals. This is significant since rare earths are needed for use in most electronic devices, electric vehicles, wind turbines, and the aerospace and defense industries. They are essential to our modern society, and the US depends on China’s exports. Globally, rare earth production is dominated by China.

     Here in 2020, The US’ only domestic rare earths producing mine is California’s Mountain Pass rare earths mine. And for now, it sends its ore to China to be processed. Mountain Pass says they will kick-start their own processing operation by the end of 2020. Another two processing operations in the US are expected to open in mid-2022. Since 1985, China has steadily grown its rare earths production. While other countries shunned the dirty production of rare earths, China embraced them, realizing the world’s reliance on rare earths and hence their strategic importance. By the 2000s, China’s rare earth production dominance grew. Today, China has ~ 40% of the global rare earth deposits but over 70% of global production!
     Between 2006 and 2010, China imposed rare earths quota limits on production and exports, as they wanted to be sure that they had enough supply for their own technological and economic needs. The 40% reduction in quotas in 2010 caused a severe rare earths price spike to start. It also motivated manufacturers to move to China in order to be sure to meet their needs. In 2010, China and Japan clashed over a territorial dispute in the East China Sea. As a result, China halted shipments of rare earths to Japan, disrupting the supply chain for major manufacturers like Toyota and Panasonic. Also in 2010, The U.S. Department of Energy reported a possible shortage of five rare earth elements. In the same year, The Rare Earth Supply Technology and Resources Transformation Act was passed in the USA. The legislation’s goal was: “To provide for the re-establishment of a domestic rare earth materials production and supply industry in the United States and for other purposes." Between 2010 and 2011, rare earth prices spiked as Chinese export quotas took effect. Prices quadrupled in 2010, then doubled again in 2011. In 2014 the World Trade Organization (WTO) ruled against China, which led China to drop the export quotas.
     In 2019, there was talk of a possible China retaliation to US tariffs on Chinese goods and it was reported that China was seriously considering restricting rare earth exports to the US. The Pentagon sought funds to boost U.S. rare-earth production as fears over rare earth supplies from China mounted.
     Between 2010 and 2019, there were numerous calls for the US to develop its own rare earths industry, but nothing changed. The Electric Vehicle (EV) boom is expected to cause a new surge in demand for some rare earths.
     While the US lists rare earths as critical materials, we have essentially done nothing to secure its supply. China still controls the vast majority of the global rare earth industry and hence controls the supply chain critical to producing high tech electronics, especially those using magnets. China’s dominance of the sector makes the world very vulnerable to any Chinese export ban or supply disruption. It makes no sense for the US to be so reliant on rare earths from China. The US is very vulnerable to a Chinese ban on rare earths as the US continues to import most of its rare earths from China, either directly or indirectly as end products such as magnets, electronics, or electric motors. As the era of electric vehicles takes off demand for rare earths will explode. What will happen if China refuses to sell rare earths to the US? Thanks to the Rare Earth Supply Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010, the US government did recognize the need to “provide for the re-establishment of a domestic rare earth materials production and supply industry in the United States”. But little to no action has been taken to make this happen. U.S. environmental and permitting rules make it very difficult to start a new rare earths mine in the US today. With renewed concerns arising as a result of the US-China trade war, we still face the problem of securing a reliable supply of critical rare earths. Now in mid-2020, the US may have finally started to take action. Perhaps we have finally come to our senses![3]

     In April of 2020, President Donald Trump's administration announced it would provide a $12 million aid package to Greenland for economic development, raising eyebrows in Denmark, which has sovereignty over the island. The Trump administration saw this as an important strategic opportunity. Don’t forget, that in August of 2019, Trump said his administration was looking into purchasing Greenland. Later, a senior State Department official said, "There's no plan or interagency process underway involving the purchase of Greenland." [4]

     While President Trump's proposal to buy Greenland lit up social media feeds and left many scratching their heads, people who work on rare earth materials were not surprised. Greenland has rare earth supplies. It was feared at the time that the president’s trade war with China could disrupt access to these metals crucial to green energy, defense systems and consumer technology.
     As with other commodities produced for global consumption in the last 30 years, China’s hinterlands have absorbed a disproportionate share of the pollution generated by rare earth processing. This also means that scientists in China and their international colleagues have built unparalleled expertise in how to remediate polluted areas and ensure that newer facilities do less harm. The problem is that rare earths have been made into a bargaining chip in the ongoing U.S.-China trade dispute, which overshadows our shared interests and hobbles our progress toward lasting solutions.
     We must capitalize on shared global interests to ensure that the new rare earth supply chains are the greatest and greenest. This means working with experts who have already solved technical and environmental problems related to rare earth processing in other parts of the world, like Japan, the EU, Brazil and China. This is not a radical proposal. Collaboration among the best minds is the norm for major technological undertakings, including those considered “critical” or “sensitive” as rare earths currently are.
     Although pundits love to conjure a monolithic “China” as the bogeyman in contemporary rare earth politics, U.S. and Chinese scientists have worked together for decades. We have much to gain by expanding, rather than suppressing, these means for collaboration.
     Focusing on processing rather than mining will actually address the concerns surrounding China’s dominance in the rare earth sector. The U.S. could open a dozen rare earth mines and it would do little to change the current situation if we do not invest in refining rare earths and rebuilding technological manufacturing.
     Simply opening new mines means that the refining process and associated environmental harms remain concentrated in China. Instead, we could create jobs, protect national security and revitalize U.S. technological leadership by developing a green rare earth refining and recycling program.
     Let’s get out of the 20th-century mentality that mining necessarily must be dirty and dangerous. There are several promising developments underway to mitigate the problem, but they need more support. A federal rare earth recycling program could pave the way for local and private sector initiatives. Currently, less than 1 percent of all rare earths consumed are recycled. This exacerbates our dependence on China and increases pressure to open new mines
     Laboratory research has revealed possible ways to recover the rare earth metals from electronic waste. At the Department of Energy’s Ames Laboratory, researchers have developed an acid-free technique for recovering rare earth metals from shredded hard drives. Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania uses ionic ligands to separate two of the rare earth metals crucial for making powerful magnets.
     Opening more mines like it’s 1590 or buying territories like it’s 1867 won’t solve the problem, because the problem is not a shortage of unrefined ores. Instead, smart R&D investments will bring our production, consumption and disposal practices into the 21st century. This means reducing waste, increasing recycling and repair, and cleaning up the dirtiest and most dangerous aspects of the supply chain.[5]

     In 2019, the U.S. Department of Defense committed funding for two rare earth separation plants on U.S. soil. This was one small step towards the Trump administration’s stated goal of breaking the country’s dependence on Chinese supplies of critical minerals. But the direct involvement of the Pentagon underlines the scale of the task associated with creating from scratch a non-Chinese rare earths supply chain.
     The United States has been almost totally dependent on imports of rare earth compounds and metals over the last several years China has been the largest supplier to the tune of around 80% of all imports.
     That reliance on China for minerals with critical uses across a wide spectrum of civilian and military applications is becoming ever more problematic as Sino-U.S. relations deteriorate.
     However, to break it, as the United States is finding out, requires a mix of direct government support, alliances with like-minded countries, and a long-term focus on the six-stage process chain from ore to rare earth magnet.
     The United States now produces rare earths at the reopened Mountain Pass mine in California, bought out of bankruptcy in 2017 by MP Materials.
     The mine produced 26,000 tons of light rare earth oxide in concentrate form in 2018, accounting for 12% of global production.
     China’s dominance of the first-stage of the global rare earths chain is weakening, partly due to the return of Mountain Pass and partly due to a displacement of highly-polluting heavy rare earths mining from China to Myanmar.
     However, China’s control of global processing capacity is almost total, with the exception of Australia’s Lynas Corp which operates a separation plant in Malaysia.
     But, what’s currently mined at Mountain Pass gets shipped to China to be upgraded into compounds and products which are then shipped back to the United States.
     MP Materials is one of the three companies chosen to receive direct government funding for a separation plant, while Lynas is teaming up with Texas-based Blue Line on a heavy rare earths separation plant. The problem, though, is that the oxide generated at both separation plants may still have to go to China for further processing.
     The United States currently has virtually no capacity to produce neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets, the most common end-use application for rare earths and one that is set for exponential growth as the global automotive industry migrates to electric vehicles.
     The U.S. is playing catch-up and the Department of Defense’s mandate to directly invest in separation capacity is a recognition of the nurturing role government will have to play. The United States is learning that it’s going to need allies if it is to regain some control of the rare earths sector. The United States has been busy building potential alliances with both Australia and Canada across a range of critical minerals. It’s also pretty clear that if the U.S. is it going to fill its domestic magnet-making void it will need Japanese help. Not only is Hitachi the only non-Chinese player of size, but Japan is further along the path of cutting rare earth links with China having found itself at the hard end of a Chinese export ban a decade ago.
     It’s taken a decade for Japan to loosen China’s grip on its rare earths supplies and the United States also faces a long haul. The Department of Defense’s funding for MP Materials and Lynas/Blue Line is an important step on that road, but it’s set to be a very long road.[6]

     “It happens about once a year . . . in Washington: a think tank or a group of concerned citizens holds an event centering on the rare earth problem.
     “Then a year passes, and another organization puts on a panel discussion or releases a report where it is revealed that not much has changed over the past 12 months.
     “For those unfamiliar with the problem, here is a summary: Rare earths are a category of strategic minerals that — despite the misnomer — aren’t all that rare. They are found in abundance here in the United States.
     “They are an essential building block in a variety of consumer and military technologies, including iPhones and Tomahawk missiles.
     “The problem is that the United States decades ago abandoned mining and producing rare earth materials for a variety of reasons.
     "Meanwhile, as technology advanced and rare earths became more and more essential to modern day life, China stepped into the vacuum and created a monopoly.
     “The monopoly extends not only to mining the elements, but more importantly to refining and processing them into the materials needed for a growing list of technologies.
     “For example, the United States government wants to get away from China’s dominance in the 5G telecommunications marketplace. It doesn’t trust the main purveyor of the technology: Huawei. And it’s actively pursuing policies aimed at discouraging U.S. companies and U.S. allies from depending on China for the next-generation wireless networks.
     “Unfortunately, experts say even if U.S. telecom giants were to develop their own indigenous 5G technology, they would still need to buy tons of processed rare earth elements from China to make it work.
     “So? Start your own mining and processing facility and cash in on the demand. But be prepared for China to drastically push down the market price for the commodities in order to aggressively drive competitors out of the business.
     “This year’s discussion on rare earths — held virtually due to the COVID-19 crisis — was organized by the Center for Security Policy, a think tank founded by former Reagan administration officials.
     “Laid bare in the discussion was the usual political split. On the panel were former Republican Party officials, who wanted the government to help — a little bit, but not so much that it would make them uncomfortable.
     “ ‘We’re good conservatives,’ said . . . a special assistant to the president for communications under President George H. W. Bush. The government shouldn’t be picking winners and losers, he said. ‘We don’t want that. We remember the Department of Energy. We remember the Obama years. We remember Solyndra,’ he said, referencing the DoE program that loaned millions of dollars to the solar energy company, which ended up filing for bankruptcy.
     “ ‘We don’t want to even up the asymmetric contest by nationalizing U.S. resources,’ . . . If government can signal demand on what’s critical and important it can help ‘in some small way,’ he said.
     “The United States shouldn’t take on China by being more ‘China-like,” he said. ‘We’re going to lose all the advantage that the U.S. system has.’
     “Investment should flow to the best possible candidates with the most innovative ideas . . .
     “The invisible hand of the market and Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations came up in the discussion.
      - - -
     “The other side of the coin was {presented by} . . . {the} chief executive officer of Materia USA, a startup focused on production of critical mineral commodities from unconventional resources such as recycling.
     “There is no U.S. strategy presently available to secure rare earths, [Emphasis mine] he pointed out. Both Presidents Barack Obama and Donald Trump issued executive orders on strategic minerals, but not much has come of them.
      - - -
     “{He} saw a bigger role for government. It should breathe life back into the now nearly defunct and defunded Bureau of Mines.
     “ ‘It was the vehicle that kick-started the entire rare earth industry in this country. That was because it took all of the people who were experts in their field on the topics of rare earth and project development and procurement, and they basically gave them the keys to secure the interests for the United States and its national security during the Cold War.’
     “ ‘In order to compete with the Chinese, we are going to have to provide economic incentives to do so,’ he added.
     “While {it was} asserted that ‘the environmentalists and super regulators want to come in and cripple us and benefit the Chinese,’ {it was} pointed out that some Chinese communities near these mines have been turned into ecological disaster zones and are nearly uninhabitable.
     “With ‘healthy amounts of regulations, … you can still mine rare earths in the United States in an economically viable fashion,’ he contended.
     “Two different approaches to the problem based on two different political philosophies is not surprising in Washington.
     “But it seems that bold action of some kind is now required on the part of Congress to jump-start a U.S. rare earths market. Sadly, the words ‘bold action’ and ‘Congress’ are not often spoken in the same sentence nowadays. [Emphasis mine] (Ref. 7)

     In a move to relax its dependency on China for America’s rare earth materials, a new pilot plant that will process rare earth materials necessary for many critical U.S. military weapons systems opened in June {2020}, as part of an effort to end China’s monopoly on the important resources.
     The pilot plant is a joint venture between USA Rare Earth and Texas Mineral Resources Corp. The two companies previously funded a project on Round Top mountain in Hudspeth County, Texas, which features 16 of the 17 rare earth elements.
     The objective was to set up a domestic U.S. supply chain without the materials ever leaving the United States. The rare earth elements are necessary for a number of weapons systems including the Lockheed Martin-made F-35 joint strike fighter, Tomahawk cruise missiles and other munitions.
     Once fully commissioned, the plant will be focused initially on group separation of rare earth elements into heavy, middle and light. The final phase of the pilot will be the further separation of high-purity individual rare earth element compounds.
     The facility, which is based in Wheat Ridge, Colorado, will also be involved in the recovery of non-rare earth elements with a focus on lithium, uranium, beryllium, gallium, zirconium, hafnium and aluminum, all of which are on the U.S. government’s critical minerals list. [8]

     For the past few decades, the United States has allowed itself to become dependent upon a foreign and potentially hostile nation for materials that are crucial to its defense needs and which are also essential to domestic technological growth and prosperity. Today, this situation, long recognized as unacceptable, appears to finally have been given the attention it has urgently deserved. President Trump’s on-again off-gain trade war with China appears to have galvanized our government into initiating action to reverse the neglect and inattention to this issue of such vital economic and security importance. Hopefully, this about face is not too late.

     “Rising tensions with China and the race to repatriate supply chains in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic have given fresh impetus to U.S. efforts to launch a renaissance in rare earths, the critical minerals at the heart of high technology, clean energy, and especially high-end U.S. defense platforms.
     “But it’s not going well, [Emphasis mine] despite a slew of new bills and government initiatives aimed at rebuilding a soup-to-nuts rare-earth supply chain in the United States that would, after decades of growing reliance on China and other foreign suppliers, restore U.S. self-reliance in a vital sector.
      - - -
     “The problem is that, despite years of steadily increasing efforts under the Trump administration, the United States—both the public and private sectors—has yet to figure out how to redress the fundamental vulnerabilities in its critical materials supply chain, and America still seems years away from developing the full gamut of rare-earth mining, processing, and refining capabilities it needs if it seeks to wean itself off foreign suppliers.
     “This month {May 2020}, Texas Republican Sen. Ted Cruz became the latest lawmaker to introduce legislation meant to jump-start a domestic rare-earth industry by offering juicy tax breaks for new projects - and especially large tax incentives for end consumers who source finished products from American suppliers. Other lawmakers, like Sen. Lisa Murkowski of Alaska, have pushed legislation of their own meant to spur U.S. development of rare earths.
     “The U.S. Defense Department, meanwhile, is trying to throw money at the problem, putting rare earths at the center of the annual defense acquisition bill three years in a row, with plans this year to massively increase existing Pentagon funding for rare-earth projects. All that comes after a drumbeat of Trump administration moves, from a 2017 executive order seeking to ensure supplies of critical minerals to a 2019 Commerce Department report suggesting ways to do so.
      - - -
     “The drive to decouple from China has been thrown into overdrive by the coronavirus pandemic and new calls from hawks in Washington to take a tougher approach to confronting Beijing’s rise as a global rival. . .
     “. . . lawmakers and Trump administration officials, starting with the president, are also increasingly leery of maintaining the kind of deep economic integration with China that has marked the last two decades.” (Ref. 9)

     “In May 2014, then-Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin threatened to cut off the supply of Russian-made RD-180 rocket engines to the United States as the two great powers tussled diplomatically about the invasion of Ukraine.
     “ ‘Wait! What?’ said hundreds of members of Congress. ‘We depend on Russia for national security launch rocket engines?’
     “Most of them didn’t have a clue, but they readily approved funding for the U.S. industrial base to develop its own rockets, which eventually will mean a loss of jobs and trade for Russia.
     “Five years later, as the United States and China {engaged} in a bruising trade war, the Association of China Rare Earth Industry — a consortium of six {Chinese} state-owned companies — said in an Aug. 5 {2019} statement that ‘U.S. consumers must shoulder the costs from U.S. - imposed tariffs,’ . . .
     “And there it is: finally someone in China {was} foolish enough to pull out the nation’s rare earth monopoly card. Hopefully with this wake-up call, Congress will make China find out the hard way what Rogozin learned in 2014.” [Emphasis mine] (Ref. 10)

     It’s essential that America takes action to end China’s monopoly on these critical elements that are necessary for everything from smartphones to critical weapon systems such as the F-35, along with just about everything Pentagon officials have called the weapons of the future.
     25 years ago, China set out to create a monopoly on rare earth elements knowing that they would be crucial in the production of modern electronics. Except for about 10 percent of the world’s supply produced in Japan, it has largely accomplished that goal. It controls mines and, most importantly, the means of refinement and production.
     Back in 1980, the U.S. government in an effort to keep tabs of thorium - a crucial element in the manufacture of nuclear fuel - passed stringent regulations on how it should be handled during mining. Heavy rare earths come from thorium-bearing byproducts. Mining companies decided to bury these byproducts rather than risk liability, thus inadvertently killing off the U.S. rare earth industry at the dawn of a new technological age.
     America needs to correct this mistake and now, forty years later, get its head out of the sand and fix the rare earths problem with the urgency it showed in 2014 with the RD-180 rocket engine. If we succeed in thwarting China’s goal of dominating rare earth elements, we will have won an important economic battle with Beijing that will not only benefit U.S. workers but will also correct a real national security vulnerability.[10]

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  1. Rare earths could be the next front in the US-China trade war. Here's what you should know, Sherisse Pham and Julia Horowitz, CNN BUSINESS, 30 May 2019.
  2. China’s Rare Earth Threat Sparks An International Backlash, Tim Treadgold, Forbes, 7 August 2020.
  3. U.S. finds its Chinese rare earth dependency hard to break, Andy Home, REUTERS, 28 July 2020.
  4. After Trump tried to buy Greenland, US gives island $12M for economic developmen, Conor Finnegan,
    abc NEWS, 23 April 2020.
  5. R&D, not Greenland, can solve our rare earth problem, Julie Michelle Klinger, Ph.D.,,
    18 September 2019.
  6. The U.S. rare earths saga continues…, Matthew Bohlsen,, investorintel, 22 July 2019.
  7. Bold Action Needed to Solve Rare Earth Problem, Stew Magnuson, NATIONAL DEFENSE, Page 8,
    August 2020.
  8. Rare Earth Processing Plant Opens in Colorado, Stew Magnuson, NATIONAL DEFENSE, Page 14,
    August 2020.
  9. U.S. Falters in Bid to Replace Chinese Rare Earths, Keith Johnson and Robbie Gramer,,
    25 May, 2020.
  10. Make China Pay for Pulling the Rare Earth Card, Stew Magnuson, NATIONAL DEFENSE, Page 8,
    September 2019.


  11 September 2020 {Article 435; Govt_85}    
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